ARTWASHING: A term for what observers see as the past and present role of public art and creative placemaking in priming markets for the benefit of developers and outside investors, raising price points and enriching municipalities, but displacing incumbent residents, often communities of color. ArtsFuse Boston says that the process often “exacerbates class differences, encourages unwanted neighborhood changes, and even takes advantage of undervalued artists.” The term can also refer to the support of art and culture to burnish a corporation’s image.

 

ETHICAL DEVELOPMENT: A philosophy of development that emphasizes sustainability, health, and inclusivity, as well as transparent government processes and ethical investment. According to the World Vision Ethical Cities Programme, ethical development prioritizes “the ‘common-good’ over individual interests as well as adopting a long-term perspective.”

 

INCLUSIVE URBANISM: Urban development that includes the inputs and interests of the widest possible variety of citizens. Inclusive cities “maintain their wealth and creative power by avoiding marginalization, which compromises the richness of interaction upon which cities depend.” (Collaborative for Inclusive Urbanism)

 

INTERSECTIONALITY: A sociological theory that calls attention to the multiple issues of discrimination that someone may face when he or she belongs to multiple identity groups: race, gender, age, ethnicity, health status, etc. At the same time, the term refers to the web of interconnected interests in power structures; in the arts, it calls attention to the dynamics among artists, commissioners, city administrators, and other wielders of power and influence.

 

PEOPLE-FIRST DESIGN: Urban design that emphasizes the health and convenience of urban dwellers by encouraging compact and dense city development and promoting walking, bicycling, and public transit. The philosophy also calls for better use of municipal infrastructure and for maintaining the viability of locally based businesses.

 

PLACETAKING: Often invoked as a sort of “evil twin” of placemaking, this synonym for gentrification occurs, according to Lumpen magazine, when projects are designed to appeal to “the wealthy and privileged, such that the disadvantaged find themselves forced out of their neighborhoods and public spaces.”

 

PLACE-STAKING: Balancing the dissimilar and often conflicting interests of different stakeholders—business owners, pedestrians, government, homeowners, and others—in the process of creating and executing urban designs.

 

RESILIENT DESIGN: “The intentional design of buildings, landscapes, communities, and regions in order to respond to natural and manmade disasters and disturbances—as well as long-term changes resulting from climate change—including sea level rise, increased frequency of heat waves, and regional drought.” (Resilient Design Institute)

 

REURBANIZATION: Umbrella term for the movement of people from the suburbs to core cities. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the annual growth rate of American cities has surpassed that of the suburbs since 2011.